Mattress types

What are common types of mattresses?

Innerspring mattress

Innerspring mattresses have a spring coils as a mattress support core. Usually full size mattress will contain minimum 300 coils, queen size 375, and king size 450, but quality product will typically consist 15% - 20% more. The gauge of spring wire is a factor of determination how firm or soft the mattress is. 12.5 gauge of wire is the firm option, but the mattress with coils made of 18 gauge wire springs much softer.

There are different types of coil systems including:

- pocket or Marshall coils,
- hourglass shaped - knotted Bonnell, and knotted Offset,
- continuous coils.

Number of turns within one spring will affect the coil life and the more rotations each mattress springs have the mattress will last. Typically each spring will have 6 – 7 turns.

Latex mattress

There are three types of latex used for making mattresses:

- natural latex – 100% natural product produced from fluid found in some trees;
- blended or mixed – combination of natural and synthetic materials;
- synthetic – fully synthetic product.

Dunlop and Talalay are two processes how latex is made. It is similar transformation of liquid latex to foam latex, but Talay is more innovation process and after latex is molded it is vacuumed and frozen to stabilize the cell structure.

ILD (Indentation Load Deflection) is a coefficient of firmness rating. The numbers usually range from 16 (extra soft) to 46 (extra firm or hard).

Memory foam mattress

Originally developed by NASA, visco elastic foam became very popular for mattress production. Memory foam mattress consist few layers of foam different in thickness and with its unique properties. Usually foam density will vary from 2 to 7 lb/ft³. Typically only top 3 – 6 inches thick layer is higher density foam. Similar to latex foam IFD (Indentation Force Deflection) coefficient will identify how firm or soft the memory foam mattress is. IFD typically range from 10 to 15. Polyurethane foam consist air-filled temperature sensitive cells which have ability to decompressed under the pressure and getting back to its original shape after pressure released.

Air mattress

Air mattresses have air pressure inside rubber or vinyl mattress core air chamber as a mattress support. Electric pump connected to each chamber will supply air to the air-filled core. The main advantage of air beds is that the softness or firmness easily adjustable by controlling an air pressure inside the air chamber. Also air mattress can be folded to very small dimensions and easy to transport.

Water mattress

There are three main types of water mattresses:

- Free flow – water is not stabilized inside the mattress chamber, and human body feels all water waves’ movements inside the PVC film.
- Hydraulic water mattresses have vinyl coils filled with water what makes the mattress not shakable and more stable. The more coils mattress has the more firm it is.
- Fiber fill or waveless mattress – different grades of stability achieved by filling the mattress core with a fiber allowing 95% or more motion reduction.

Water inside the mattress is heated by special heating element allowing water temperature keep at a certain temperature level.